Jagadish Chandra Bose (Bengali: জগদীশ চন্দ্র বসু; November 30, 1858 – November 23, 1937), popularly called J.C. Bose and formally with all titles known as Acharya Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, was an Bengali physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and also author science fictions. His path breaking achievements were the earliest investigations of radio and microwave optics, and startling discoveries on plant science and its related invention of crescograph. He was the founder father of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent given the sobriquet the fathers of radio science. For his outstanding achievements he received world wide acclaim and given the title of Acharya, the Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE, 1903), Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI, 1912), Knight Bachelor (1917) and Fellow of the Royal Society.
- The true laboratory is the mind, where behind illusions we uncover the laws of truth.
India's Great Scientist, J.C. Bose
. India's Great Scientist, J.C. Bose. Randall Fontes - From the Secret Life of Plants to The Play of Light. Retrieved on 8 December 2013.}
- I was educated at Cambridge. How admirable is the Western method of submitting all theory to scrupulous experimental verification! That procedure has gone hand in hand with the gift for introspection which is my Eastern heritage. Together they have enabled me to sunder the silences of natural realms long uncommunicative. The telltale charts of my crescograph 2 are evidence for the most skeptical that plants have a sensitive nervous system and a varied emotional life. Love, hate, joy, fear, pleasure, pain, excitability, r, and countless appropriate responses to stimuli are as universal in plants as in animals.
- I have recently returned from an expedition to scientific societies of the West. Their members exhibited intense interest in delicate instruments of my invention which demonstrate the indivisible unity of all life. The Bose crescograph has the enormity of ten million magnifications. The microscope enlarges only a few thousand times; yet it brought vital impetus to biological science. The crescograph opens incalculable vistas.
- The poet is intimate with truth, while the scientist approaches awkwardly. Come someday to my laboratory and see the unequivocable testimony of the crescograph.
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose in Vijayaprasara
His receiver (right) used a galena crystal detector inside a horn antenna and galvanometer to detect microwaves. Bose invented the crystal ran victory. To me his life has been one of blessing, and daily thanksgiving. Nevertheless everyone had said that he had wrecked his life, which was meant for greater things. Few realize that out of the skeletons of myriad lives have been built vast continents. And it is on the wreck of a life like his, and of many such lives, that will be built the greater India yet to be. We do not know why it should be so; but we do know that the Earth-Mother is always calling for sacrifice.
- From his (Karna’s) low caste came rejection, came every disadvantage; but he always played and fought fair! So his life, though a series of disappointments and defeats to the very end – his slaying by Arjuna– appealed to me as a boy as the greatest of triumphs. I still think of the tournament where Arjuna had been victor, and then of Karna coming as a stranger to challenge him. Questioned of name and birth, he replies, “I am my own ancestor! You do not ask the might Ganges from which of its many springs it comes: its own flow justifies itself, so shall my deeds me! [Further he wrote :] Like that of my boyhood’s hero Karna, my life has been ever one of combat and must be to the last. It is not for man to complain of circumstances, but bravely to accept, to confront, and to dominate them.
- The character of Karna in Mahabharata influenced him deeply.
- I have sought permanently to associate the advancement of knowledge with the widest possible civic and public diffusion of it; and this without any academic limitations, henceforth to all races and languages, to both men and women alike, and for all time coming.
- Not in matter but in thought, not in possessions nor even in attainments but in ideals, is to be found the seed of immortality. Not through material acquisition but in generous diffusion of ideas and ideals can the true empire of humanity be established. Thus to Asoka, to whom belonged this vast empire, bound by the inviolate seas, after he had tried to ransom the world by giving away to the utmost, there came a time when he had nothing more to give, except one half of an Amlaki fruit. This was his last possession, and his anguished cry was that since he had nothing more to give, let the half of the Amlaki be accepted as his final gift.
- Ashoka’s emblem of the Amlaki will be seen on the cornices of the Institute, and towering above all is the symbol of thunderbolt. It was the RishiDadhichi, the pure and blameless, who offered his life that the divine weapon, the thunderbolt, might be fashioned out of his bones to smite evil and exalt righteousness. It is but half of the Amlaki that we can offer now. But the past shall be reborn in a yet nobler future. We stand here today and resume work tomorrow, so that by the efforts of our lives and our unshaken faith in the future we may all help to build the greater India yet to be.
Science and National Consciousness in Bengal: 1870-1930
Lourdusamy, J. (1 January 2004). Science and National Consciousness in Bengal: 1870-1930. Orient Blackswan. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-81-250-2674-7.
- They would be our worst enemy who would wish us to live only on the glories of the past and die off from the face of the earth in sheer passivity. By continuous achievement alone we can justify our great ancestry. We do not honour our ancestors by the false claim that they are omniscient and had nothing more to learn.
- Capacity to endure through infinite transformation must be innate in that mighty civilization which has seen the intellectual culture of the Nile Valley of Assyria and of Babylon wax and wane and disappear, and which today gazes on the future with the same invincible faith with which it met the past.
- Nothing can be more vulgar or more untrue than the ignorant assertion that the world owes its progress of knowledge of any particular race. The whole world is interdependent and a constant stream of thought has throughout ages enriched the common heritage of mankind. It is the realization of this mutual interdependence that has kept the mighty fabric bound together and ensured the continuity of permanence of civilization.
- [Science] was a human heritage] belonging neither to the East or the West.
- The unique throb of life in all creation could seem only poetic imagery before your advent, Professor! A saint I once knew would never pluck flowers. 'Shall I rob the rosebush of its pride in beauty? Shall I cruelly affront its dignity by my rude divestment?' His sympathetic words are verified literally through your discoveries!"
- Quoted in "India's Great Scientist, J.C. Bose"
- Sir J.C. Bose's pioneering works in quasi-optic millimeter wave research in Calcutta, India about 100 years back during 1890s are highlighted. He developed an elegant millimeter wave spark transmitter, self recovering coherer detector, wire grid polariser, cylindrical diffraction grating, dielectric lens and prism, rectangular waveguide, horn antenna and microwave absorber, for the studies of reflection, refraction, absorption and polarisation of millimeter waves and its application to wireless remote control for firing a gun. All these pioneering activities indicate that he was well ahead of his time and prompted us to call him the "Father of Radio Science".
- Then afterwards, when victory is yours, we too-all of us Bengalis-will share in the honour and the glory. We do not need to understand what is it that you have done. Or to have given you any thought, time or money, but the moment we hear the chorus or praises in The Times from the lips of the Englishmen we shall lap it up. Some important news papers in our country will observe we are not inferior men; and another paper will observe we are making discovery after discovery in science. Earlier we shall not have felt an iota of responsibility towards you, but when victory has been won and you return home bearing a crop of records, then you will be one of us. Soughing and ploughing you will do alone; reaping we shall do together. The victory you will find will be more ours than yours.
- After his recognition by the west Rabindranath Tagore wrote to Bose. Quoted in "Science and National Consciousness in Bengal: 1870-1930", pages=107-08
- O Hermit, call thou in the authentic words
Of that old hymn called Sama; "Rise! Awake!
Call to the man who boasts his shastric lore
From vain pedantic wranglings profitless,
Call to that foolish braggart to come forth
Out on the face of nature, this broad earth,
Send forth this call unto thy scholar band;
Together round thy sacrifice of fire
Let them all gather. So may our India,
Our ancient land unto herself return
O once again return to steadfast work,
To duty and devotion, to her trance
Of earnest meditation; let her sit
Once more unruffled, greedless, strifeless, pure,
O once again upon her lofty seat
And platform, teacher of all lands.
- The poem composed by Rabindranath Tagore in honour of his friend Bose's achievements. Quoted in India's Great Scientist, J.C. Bose
- ...the "Resonant Cardiograph," Bose then pursued extensive researches on innumerable Indian plants. An enormous unsuspected pharmacopoeia of useful drugs was revealed. The cardiograph is constructed with an unerring accuracy by which a one-hundredth part of a second is indicated on a graph. Resonant records measure infinitesimal pulsations in plant, animal and human structure. The great botanist predicted that use of his cardiograph will lead to vivisection on plants instead of animals.
- Quoted in India's Great Scientist, J.C. Bose.
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose in Vijayaprasara
- To bringing about the scientific renaissance (In India) Sir Jagadish had influentially contributed. Indians are justly proud of the possession of a few men who have gained world-wide reputation in their particular fields of activity, and this pride reacts strongly on public opinion. At the Research Institute a group Indian post-graduate students devote their lives to research. The published Transactions of the Institute show that under the leadership of this eminent Bengali, Indian research is making substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, that in this field there is no fundamental difference between the Western and the Eastern mind, as was assumed when Sir Jagadish began his work.
- By Times after the inauguration of the his research institute on 23rd November 1917.
- The generally accepted interpretation of Jagadish Chandra’s scientific activities is that he had essentially the biologist’s conception of Nature; lack of opportunities for biological studies while as a student in Calcutta and later lack of any teaching post in biology, induced Jagadish Chandra to take up the post of teacher in physics.
- Bose was a physicist and a physicist he remained in his outlook to the very end.
- He (Bose) was modern India’s first physicist after all, one of her very first scientists. He was his motherland’s first active participant in the Galilean - Newtonian tradition. He had confounded the British disbeliever. He had shown that the Eastern mind was indeed capable of the exact and exacting thinking demanded by western science. He had broken the mould.
- Bose was the first Indian to be admitted in person to the sanctum sanctorum of English, thus western science.
- Our investigative research into the origin and first major use of solid state diode detector devices led to the discovery that the first transatlantic wireless signal in Marconi’s world-famous experiment was received by Marconi using the iron-mercury-iron-coherer with a telephone detector invented by Sir J.C. Bose in 1898.
- By "The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers" (IEEE)
- His model of an electric eye which records with electric signals message received from outside world, his physical model of memory as a mechanism for storing information justified this being considered a precursor of the modern discipline of cybernetics.
- Observation of Bose Institute.
Next (Jagiellon dynasty)
Jagdish Chandra Bose জগদীশ চন্দ্র বসু
November 30, 1858
|Died||November 23, 1937|
Giridih, Jharkhand, India
|Alma mater||Calcutta University|
Christ's College, Cambridge
|Academic advisor||John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh)|
|Known for||Millimeter waves|
Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose (Bengali: জগদীশ চন্দ্র বসুJôgdish Chôndro Boshu) (November 30, 1858 – November 23, 1937) was a Bengali from undivided India, who contributed to the foundations of experimental science there. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave signaling and optics, and made highly significant contributions to plant science. He is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction.
Bose is highly regarded in the scientific communities of the world not merely for his contributions, but also for the changes they brought to India and the Western attitude toward Indian science. He was a man of strong principles, who went beyond the restrictions of the caste system and beyond Hindu-Muslim animosity. In addition, based on his principles, he was reluctant to patent his inventions and was willing to forgo a salary that was deliberately demeaning.
Early life and education
Bose was born in Mymensingh in East Bengal (what is now Bangladesh) , on November 30, 1858. His father, Bhagawan Chandra Bose was a respected leader of the Brahmo Samaj and worked as a deputy magistrate/assistant commissioner in Faridpur, Bardhaman, and other places. His family originally hailed from the village Rarikhal, Bikrampur, in the current day Munshiganj District of Bangladesh.
Bose’s education started with a vernacular school, because his father believed that one must know his own mother tongue before beginning English, and that he should know his own people. Speaking at the Bikrampur Conference in 1915, Bose said:
At that time, sending children to English schools was an aristocratic status symbol. In the vernacular school, to which I was sent, the son of the Muslim attendant of my father sat on my right side, and the son of a fisherman sat on my left. They were my playmates. I listened spellbound to their stories of birds, animals and aquatic creatures. Perhaps these stories created in my mind a keen interest in investigating the workings of Nature. When I returned home from school accompanied by my school fellows, my mother welcomed and fed all of us without discrimination. Although she an orthodox old fashioned lady, she never considered herself guilty of impiety by treating these "untouchables" as her own children. It was because of my childhood friendship with them that I could never feel that there were "creatures" who might be labeled "low-caste," I never realized that there existed a "problem" common to the two communities, Hindus and Muslims.
Bose joined the Hindu College and then St. Xavier’s College (an institution) in Calcutta in 1869. In 1875, Bose passed the Entrance Examination (equivalent to school graduation) of University of Calcutta and was admitted into St. Xavier's College for undergraduate studies. At St. Xavier's, Bose met Father Eugene Lafont, who played a significant role in developing Bose’s interest in the natural sciences. He received a B.A. in Science from the University of Calcutta in 1880.
Bose wanted to go to England to compete for the Indian Civil Service, but although his father was an able administrator, he vetoed the plan, as he wished his son to be a scholar. He, however, readily consented to his son’s intention to study medicine. Bose went to England to study Medicine at University of London. However, he had to quit study of medicine because of ill health. The odor in the dissection rooms is also said to have exacerbated his illness.
Through the recommendation and influence of Ananda Mohan Bose, his brother-in-law (sister's husband) and the first Indian Wrangler, he secured admission in Christ's College, Cambridge, at the Cambridge to study Natural Science. He received the Natural Science Tripos from Cambridge University and a B.Sc. from the London University in 1884. Among Bose’s teachers at Cambridge were Lord Rayleigh, Michael Foster (physiologist), James Dewar, Francis Darwin, Francis Balfour, and Sidney Vines. At the time when Bose was a student at Cambridge, Prafulla Chandra Roy was a student at Edinburgh. They met in London and became intimate friends.
Bose returned to India in 1885, carrying a letter from Fawcett, the economist, to Lord Ripon, Viceroy of India. On Lord Ripon’s request, Sir Alfred Croft, the Director of Public Instruction, appointed Bose officiating professor of physics in Presidency College. The principal, C.H. Tawney, protested against the appointment but had to accept it. The British still believed that Indians were gifted in sciences but lacked the capability to deal with exact sciences.
Soon after joining Presidency College, Bose started to teach practical classes at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, where his former teacher, Father Eugene Lafont, was still lecturing on physics. Here, as Subrata Dasgupta stated, “Bose’s demonstrations were primarily in the realm of electricity and magnetism.”
In 1894, he decided to undertake research, viewing science as a means by which he could allow India to recover her pride and break Western prejudice toward Indian science. However, Bose was not provided with any facilities for research. On the other hand, he was a "victim of racialism" with regard to his salary. In those days, an Indian professor was paid Rs. 200 per month, while a European drew Rs. 300 per month. Since Bose was officiating, he was offered a salary of only Rs. 100 per month. With a remarkable sense of self respect and national pride, he decided on a new form of protest. He refused to accept the salary check. In fact, he continued his teaching assignment for three years without any salary. Finally, both the Director of Public Instruction and the Principal of the Presidency College fully realized the value of Bose’s skill in teaching and also his lofty character. As a result his appointment was made permanent with retrospective effect. He was given the full salary for the previous three years in lump sum.
Presidency College lacked a proper laboratory. Bose had to conduct his researches in a small 24 square foot room. He devised equipments for the research with the help of one untrained tinsmith. He was also known as an excellent teacher who believed in the use of classroom demonstrations, a trait apparently picked up while studying with Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge. He influenced many later Indian physicists, including Satyendra Bose (no relation) and Meghnad Saha, who later went on to be influential figures in twentieth century physics.
Sister Nivedita writes, "I was horrified to find the way in which a great worker could be subjected to continuous annoyance and petty difficulties … The college routine was made as arduous as possible for him, so that he could not have the time he needed for investigation." After his daily grind, which he of course performed with great conscientiousness, he carried out his research far into the night, in a small room in his college.
Moreover, the policy of the British government for its colonies was not conducive to attempts at original research. Nobody expected to be favored with a research laboratory or research grant. Bose was not a person to quarrel with circumstances but confronted them and dominated over them. He spent his hard-earned money on making experimental equipment. Within a decade of his joining Presidency College, he emerged a pioneer in the research field of wireless waves.
In 1887, he was married to Abala Das, daughter of the renowned Brahmo reformer, Durga Mohan Das. Earlier, Abala was denied admission to Calcutta Medical College (female students were not accepted in the college then). Later, she went to Madras (now Chennai) in 1882, on Bengal government scholarship to study medicine at Madras Medical College. Like Bose, she had to give up because of ill health. At the time of their marriage, Bose was facing great financial crisis. On one hand he was not accepting his salary. On the other, the failure of some of the indigenous ventures of his father had failed and landed the family in dire straits. The newly married couple faced many privations and came out with flying colors, repaying the father's debts. Bose's parents lived for some time after all the debts were cleared.
The British theoretical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, mathematically predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves of diverse wave lengths, but he died in 1879, before his prediction was experimentally verified. British physicist Oliver Lodge demonstrated the existence of Maxwell’s waves transmitted along wires in 1887-88. The German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed experimentally, in 1888, the existence of electromagnetic waves in free space. Subsequently, Lodge pursued Hertz’s work and delivered a commemorative lecture in June 1894, a few months after Hertz’s death and published it in book form. Lodge’s work caught the attention of scientists in many countries, including Bose in India.
The first remarkable aspect of Bose’s follow up microwave research was that he reduced the waves to the millimeter level (about 5 mm wavelength). That was within a few octaves of visible light. He knew that long waves were advantageous because of their great penetrative power but realized their disadvantages for studying the light-like properties of those electric waves.
In November 1894 (or in 1895, according to some sources), in a public demonstration in Calcutta, J.C. Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using microwaves in wavelength in millimeter of range. The demonstration was held in the Town Hall of Calcutta, in the presence of Sir William Mackenzie, the Lieutenant Governor, and Bose wrote in a Bengali essay, Adrisya Alok (Invisible Light), “The invisible light can easily pass through brick walls, buildings etc. Therefore, messages can be transmitted by means of it without the mediation of wires.” This was one year after Nikola Tesla made the first public demonstration of radio communication in 1893. In Russia, Popov was performing similar experiments, but had recorded in December 1895 that he was hoping for distant signaling with radio waves.
Bose’s first scientific paper, “On polarisation of electric rays by double-refracting crystals” was communicated to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in May 1895, within a year of Lodge’s paper. His second paper was communicated to the Royal Society of London by Lord Rayleigh in October 1895. The Society agreed to have it published in their Proceedings. In December 1895, the London journal, The Electrician (Vol 36) published Bose’s paper, “On a new electro-polariscope.” At that time, the word "coherer," coined by Lodge, was used in the English-speaking world for Hertzian wave receivers or detectors. The Electrician readily commented on Bose’s coherer (December 1895). The Englishman (January 18, 1896) quoted from The Electrician and commented as follows: ”Should Professor Bose succeed in perfecting and patenting his ‘Coherer,' we may in time see the whole system of coast lighting throughout the navigable world revolutionized by a Bengali scientist working single handed in our Presidency College Laboratory.” Bose planned to “perfect his coherer,” but never thought of patenting it.
By the end of 1895, Bose ranked high among Hertz’s successors.
The 1895 public demonstration by Bose, in Calcutta, was before Marconi's wireless signaling experiment on Salisbury Plain in England in May 1897. Bose went to London on a lecture tour in 1896, and met Marconi, who was conducting wireless experiments for the British post office. In an interview, Bose said he was not interested in commercial telegraphy and others can use his research work. In 1899, Bose announced the development of an "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London.
It appears that Bose's demonstration of remote wireless signaling had priority over Marconi. He was the first to use a semiconductor junction to detect radio waves, and he invented various now commonplace microwave components. In 1954, Pearson and Brattain gave priority to Bose for the use of a semi-conducting crystal as a detector of radio waves. Further work at millimeter wavelengths was almost nonexistent for nearly 50 years. J.C. Bose was at least this much ahead of his time. Just one hundred years ago, J.C. Bose described to the Royal Institution in London his research carried out in Calcutta at millimeter wavelengths. He used waveguides, horn antennas, dielectric lenses, various polarizers and even semiconductors at frequencies as high as 60 GHz; much of his original equipment is still in existence, now at the Bose Institute in Kolkata (Calcutta). Some concepts from his original 1897 papers have been incorporated into a new 1.3-mm multi-beam receiver now in use on the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope, Arizona, U.S.
Neville Francis Mott, 1977 Nobel laureate for his own contributions to solid-state electronics, remarked that "J.C. Bose was at least 60 years ahead of his time," and, "In fact, he had anticipated the existence of P-type and N-type semiconductors."
Bose's next contribution to science was in plant physiology. He forwarded a theory for the ascent of sap in plants in 1927, his theory contributed to the vital theory of ascent of sap. According to his theory the pumping action of the living cells in the endodermis junction were responsible for the ascent of sap in plants.
He was skeptical about the-then most popular theory in ascent of sap, the tension-cohesion theory of Dixon and Joly, first proposed in 1894. His skepticism on the same turned true when Canny proposed the most successful "CP theory" backed by strong experimental evidence. Canny experimentally demonstrated the sort of pumping in the living cells in the junction of the endodermis, which Bose demonstrated 60 years earlier.
His research in plant stimuli were pioneering, he showed with the help of his newly invented crescograph that plants responded to various stimuli as if they had nervous systems like that of animals. He therefore found a parallel between animal and plant tissues.
His experiments showed that plants grow faster in pleasant music and its growth retards in noise or harsh sound. This was experimentally verified later on. His major contribution in the field of biophysics was the demonstration of the electrical nature of the conduction of various stimuli (wounds, chemical agents) in plants, which were earlier thought to be of chemical in nature. These claims were experimentally proved by Wildon, et al (Nature, 1992, 360, 62–65). He also studied for the first time action of microwaves in plant tissues and corresponding changes in the cell membrane potential, mechanism of effect of seasons in plants, effect of chemical inhibitor on plant stimuli, effect of temperature etc,. And all studies were pioneering. He claimed that plants can "feel pain, understand affection, etc.," from the analysis of the nature of variation of the cell membrane potential of plants, under different circumstances. According to him, a plant treated with care and affection gives out a different vibration compared to a plant subjected to torture.
The Boseian Thesis
The Boseian Thesis relates to another aspect of Bose’s research in the field of botany. From the manuscript submitted to the Royal Society (but never published), the thesis stated that “there is no discontinuity between the living and the nonliving.” With such research, Bose began to draw connections between the responsive behavior of living matter, such as muscle, and inanimate matter like metal. However, his thesis was met with great resistance by both physicists and physiologists. After that, Bose completely indulged in plant research, instead of the balance between physics and botany.
In 1896, Bose wrote Niruddesher Kahini, the first major work in Bangla Science Fiction. Later, he added the story in Obbakto book, as Polatok Tufan. He was the first science fiction writer in the Bengali language.
Bose and patents
Bose was not interested in patenting his inventions. In his Friday Evening Discourse at the Royal Institution, London, he made public his construction of the Coherer. Thus The Electric Engineer expressed "surprise that no secret was at any time made as to its construction, so that it has been open to the entire world to adopt it for practical and possibly moneymaking purposes." Bose declined an offer from a wireless apparatus manufacturer for signing a remunerative agreement. One of Bose's American friends, Sara Chapman Bull, succeeded in persuading him to file a patent application for "detector for electrical disturbances." The application was filed on September 30, 1901, and it was granted on March 29, 1904, (U.S. patent No. 755,840.
Speaking in New Delhi in August 2006, at a seminar titled, Owning the Future: Ideas and Their Role in the Digital Age, the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Dr V. S. Ramamurthy commented on the attitude of Bose towards patents. He said:
His reluctance to any form of patenting is well known. It was contained in his letter to (Indian Nobel laureate) Rabindranath Tagore dated May 17, 1901, from London. It was not that Sir Jagdish was unaware of patents and its advantages. He was the first Indian to get a U.S. Patent (No: 755840), in 1904. And Sir Jagdish was not alone in his avowed reluctance to patenting. Roentgen, Pierre Curie and many others also chose the path of no patenting on moral grounds.
He further noted that Bose recorded his attitude toward patents in his inaugural lecture at the foundation of the Bose Institute, on November 30, 1917.
Bose’s place in history has now been reevaluated. He is credited with invention of the first wireless detection device and discovery of millimeter-length electromagnetic waves, and he is considered a pioneer in the field of biophysics.
Many of his instruments are still on display and remain largely usable now, over one hundred years later. They include various antennas, polarizers, and waveguides, all of which remain in use in modern forms today.
Commemorating his birth centenary in 1958, the JBNSTS scholarship program was started in West Bengal.
Publications by Bose
- Nature published about 27 papers.
- J.C. Bose, Collected Physical Papers. New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., 1927.
- Researches into the Irritability of Plants
- The Ascent of Sap
- The Nervous Mechanisms of Plants
- Knighthood, 1916.
- Fellow of the Royal Society, 1920.
- Member of the Vienna Academy of Science, 1928.
- President of the 14th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1927.
- Member of the League of Nations' Committee for Intellectual Cooperation.
- Founding fellow of the National Institute of Sciences of India (now renamed the Indian National Science Academy).
- ↑ Santimay Chatterjee and Enakshi Chatterjee, Satyendranath Bose (National Book Trust, 2002, ISBN 8123704925).
- ↑ Subodh Mahanti, Acharya Jagdish Chandra Bose,Biographies of Scientists. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
- ↑ Visvapriya Mukherji and Jagdish Chandra Bose, Builders of Modern India (Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1994, ISBN 8123000472).
- ↑ Md Mahbub Murshed, Bose, (Sir) Jagdish Chandra. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- ↑ Calcutta web, Jagdish Chandra Bose. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
- ↑ Visvapriya Mukherji, p.11-13.
- ↑ Sunil Gangopadhyay, Protham Alo (Ananda Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2002, ISBN 8172153627).
- ↑ Indian National Science Academy, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Pursuit and Promotion of Science: The Indian Experience (Chapter 2). Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- ↑ Subodh Chandra Sengupta and Anjali Bose (eds.), Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (1976, ISBN 8185626650).
- ↑ Visvapriya Mukherji, p. 14-25.
- ↑ D.T. Emerson, The Work of Jagdish Chandra Bose: 100 Years of MM-wave Research, IEEE. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- ↑ Bose Institute, Homepage. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
- ↑ United States Patent and Trademark Office, [http://patimg1.uspto.gov/.piw?docid=US000755840&SectionNum=1&IDKey=550103618D17&HomeUrl=http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1%2526Sect2=HITOFF%2526d=PALL%2526p=1%2526u=%25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsrchnum.htm%2526r=1%2526f=G%2526l=50%2526s1=0755840.PN.%2526OS=PN/0755840%2526RS=PN/0755840 Publication Number: 00755840.] Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- Canny, M.J. 1995. A New Theory for the Ascent of Sap—Cohesion Supported by Tissue Pressure. Annals of Botany 75:343–357.
- Canny, M.J. 1998. Canny's compensating pressure theory fails a test. American Journal of Botany 85:897–909.
- Canny, M.J. 1998. Bioelectricity and the rhythms of sensitive plants—The biophysical research of Jagadis Chandra Bose. Am. Sci. 86: 152–159.
- Dasgupta, Subrata. 1999. Jagdish Chandra Bose and the Indian Response to Western Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195648749.
- Davies, E. 1987. Action Potentials as Multifunctional Signals in Plants: A Unifying Hypothesis to Explain Apparently Disparate Wound Responses. Plant Cell Environ. 10:623–631.
- Davies, E. 1987. Plant responses in wounding. The Biochemistry of Plants, vol. 12. New York: Academic Press.
- Payne, J.M., and P.R. Jewell. 1995. The Upgrade of the NRAO 8-beam Receiver. Multi-feed Systems for Radio Telescopes, ed. D.T. Emerson and J.M. Payne. San Francisco: ASP Conference Series.
- Pearson, G.L., and W.H. Brattain. 1955. History of Semiconductor Research. Proc. IRE 43: 1794-1806.
- Pickard, B. G. 1973. Action potentials in higher plants. Bot. Rev. 39:172–201.
- Roberts, K. 1992. Potential awareness in plants. Nature. 360:14–15.
- Wayne, R. 1994. Action Potentials in a Giant Algal Cell: A Comparative Approach to Mechanisms and Evolution of Excitability. Bot. Rev. 60:265–367.
- Wildon, D.C., et al. 1992. Electrical signaling and systemic proteinase inhibitor induction in the wounded plant. Nature 360: 62–65.
All links retrieved August 20, 2016.
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